Original-Titel: WHAT„S UP, DOC? Land: USA; Jahr: ; Regie: Peter Bogdanovich; Drehbuch: Buck Henry, David Newman, Robert Benton; Kamera: Laszlo. Is' was, Doc? Filminfos. Originaltitel. What's Up, Doc? Produktionsland. USA. Produktionsdatum. DVD-Start. Do., August Regie. Is' was, Doc? ist ein US-amerikanischer Spielfilm von Peter Bogdanovich aus dem Jahr , der in der Tradition klassischer Screwball-Komödie wie.
He wanted to send the racecar out of town but Sally persuaded him to commit Lightning to community service by paving a new road.
Only after an hour, the rookie attempted to quickly finish the job, only to do it sloppily. Doc ordered him to tear up the road and redo it. However, he challenged Lightning to a one-lap race around Willy's Butte if he wanted his freedom.
He anticipated that the racecar who was too used to asphalt would not do well on the dirt track and lose control on the final turn right into a cactus patch.
As he prepared to go to sleep, Doc watched with smugness as Lightning miserably began to work overnight. The next day, everyone wakes up to find that Lightning had paved a good road up to the intersection, at least half of the job; Sally commented that Doc should have thrown the rookie into a cactus patch a lot sooner.
Doc then found Sheriff watching Lightning attempting to make the last turn around Willy's Butte, having ran out of asphalt in the middle of the night.
Doc volunteers to take over watching Lightning and attempts to give him racing advice on how to make the turn. However, Lightning failed to understand it and rudely drove off to try the course again, so Doc let him be.
On the third day, Doc was operating on Sheriff when Lightning rudely burst into his office, wanting to ask for his gas ration. Doc ordered him to wait by Flo's V8 Cafe.
Soon after, he finds Lightning in his garage, having discovered his identity as the Hudson Hornet. He was less than happy when Lightning discovers his past.
Doc refused to speak of his past and called his trophies "just empty cups". Later in the day, Doc put on his racing tires to take a lap around Willy's Butte and successfully made the turn.
But when he realized that Lightning was spying on him, he promptly drove back to his home. Lightning followed him and asked why he gave up on racing.
Doc then reminded him of his crash in '54 and how the sport rejected him after he recovered. Though Lightning insisted that he is not like the sportscars who rejected him, Doc wanted to know if he had ever cared about anyone besides himself.
When the rookie hesitated to answer, Doc tells him that the Radiator Springs residents look out for each other and he does not want them reliant on a selfish car like him.
Lightning then retorted that Doc is also selfish, not opening about his past to his friends. Instead of countering, Doc tells him to finish the road and leave town.
On the fourth day, Lightning had finished fixing the road and decided to stay for a while, Doc was unable to bear having him around any longer and called the news and press to immediately take him away to the Piston Cup, declaring that it is best for everyone.
But seeing how disheartened everyone was by his unplanned departure, Doc realized that Lightning had become more important to them than he thought.
He eventually reveals to everyone his racecar days and he took back his old 51 colors to become Lightning's pit crew chief, bringing nearly the entire town except Sally , Red , and Lizzie -- who watched the race on TV to the Piston Cup to support Lightning as his pit crew and in an ironic twist of fate, finally received that long awaited fanfare for his return.
When Chick Hicks caused Strip "The King" Weathers to crash, in a similar manner to Doc himself, Lightning chose to forfeit the race to help the King cross the finish line.
Doc then expressed how proud he is of Lightning. By the end of the film, Doc opts to keep his racing colors, and becomes a trainer as well as a friend to Lightning.
Just like Lightning, Doc learned some lessons: Doc appears in the short film , where he scares Mater into believing in a monster called the Screamin' Banshee , which actually ends up existing.
When Lightning was showing Mater his new Piston Cup, they were talking about him. Also, during the race in Tokyo , Darrell Cartrip mentioned that McQueen's mentor, the Hudson Hornet, was one of the best dirt track racers in history.
On the dirt section, Mater told Lightning to do what Doc has taught him turn right to go left , which he did and took the lead. Another allusion to Doc is made in the end during the Radiator Springs Grand Prix when all the racers drive up the side of the canyon where Willies Butte is located just like Doc used to do.
John Lasseter was at first adamant that Paul Newman would return to voice Doc Hudson, even though he had announced his retirement from acting.
After Newman's death, Lasseter said that they would see how the story goes with Doc Hudson. The character was written after listening to him talk about his passion for racing," and that, "We pay homage to Doc Hudson, which is paying homage to Paul Newman.
Due to his death, Doc doesn't appear physically in this movie but a huge portion of it focuses on McQueen remembering him.
He is also mentioned and alluded to several times as well as appearing in a few flashbacks that McQueen has of Doc training him, which helps him focus on racing.
His voice is provided by unused recordings of Paul Newman originally meant for the first movie. In the beginning, when McQueen is preparing for a race in his trailer, he has a flashback of Doc giving him a racing lecture on the dirt track in Radiator Springs.
The day after Morgan's murder, Deputy U. The next morning, Frank Stilwell's body was found alongside the tracks, riddled with buckshot and gunshot wounds.
The Earp posse briefly returned to Tombstone where Sheriff Behan tried to stop them, but they brushed him aside. Spence was absent, but they found and killed Florentino "Indian Charlie" Cruz.
The Earp party withdrew to find protection from the heavy gunfire, except for Wyatt and Texas Jack Vermillion, whose horse was shot.
Curly Bill fired at Wyatt with a shotgun but missed. Wyatt had protected Curly Bill against a mob ready to lynch him 18 months earlier, and he provided testimony that helped spare Curly Bill from a murder trial for killing Sheriff Fred White.
Wyatt returned Curly Bill's gunfire with his own shotgun, hitting him in the chest from about 50 feet 15m away. Curly Bill fell into the water by the edge of the spring and died.
Vermillion tried to retrieve his rifle wedged in the scabbard under his fallen horse, exposing himself to the Cowboys' gunfire, but Holliday helped him get to cover.
Earp told biographer Stuart Lake that both sides of his long coat were shot through, and another bullet struck his boot heel. In the letter, he relayed Earp's story about how his overcoat was hit on both sides of his body by a charge of buckshot and that his saddle horn was shot off.
The saddle-horn had been splintered, his coat hung in shreds, there were three holes through the legs of his trousers, five holes through the crown of his sombrero, and three through the brim.
Earp was finally able to get on his horse and retreat with the rest of the posse. Some modern researchers have found that most saddlehorns by this time were made of steel, not wood.
He was never wounded in any of his confrontations, which added to his mystique. The posse left the Cowboys behind and rode north to the Percy Ranch, but they were not welcomed by Hugh and Jim Percy, who feared the Cowboys; they left around 3 a.
Gage for the posse. Hooker was known for his purebred stallions and ran more than brood mares which produced horses that were renowned for their speed, beauty, and temperament.
In , Earp gave an interview to California historian Hubert Howe Bancroft , during which he claimed to have killed "over a dozen stage robbers, murderers, and cattle thieves" in his time as a lawman.
The gunfight in Tombstone lasted only 30 seconds, but it ended up defining Earp for the rest of his life. Masterson went with them to Trinidad, Colorado where he opened a faro game in a saloon and later became marshal.
The Earps and Texas Jack set up camp on the outskirts of Gunnison, where they remained quietly at first, rarely going into town for supplies.
Josephine Marcus described the skeletal Holliday as having a continuous cough and standing on "unsteady legs. Josephine was Earp's common-law wife for 46 years until his death.
However, he still owned a house in Tombstone with his former common-law wife Mattie, who had waited for him in Colton where his parents and Virgil were living.
She had met a gambler from Arizona and he had asked her to marry him. Earp did not believe in divorce and therefore refused, but she ran away with the gambler anyway.
She struggled with addictions and committed suicide by opium poisoning on July 3, Earp's friend Luke Short was part owner of the Long Branch saloon in Dodge City, but the mayor tried to run him out of business and out of town during the Dodge City War.
Short appealed to Masterson, and Masterson contacted Earp on May 31, The town council offered a compromise to allow Short 10 days to get his affairs in order, but Earp refused to compromise.
Short's Saloon reopened, and the so-called Dodge City War ended without a shot being fired. Eagle City was another new boomtown growing from the discovery of gold, silver, and lead in the Coeur d'Alene area; it is now a ghost town in Shoshone County, Idaho.
Earp was named deputy sheriff in the area, including newly incorporated Kootenai County, Idaho which was disputing jurisdiction of Eagle City with Shoshone County.
There were a considerable number of disagreements over mining claims and property rights which Earp had a part in. On March 28, a miner named Bill Buzzard was constructing a building when Earp's partner Jack Enright tried to stop him.
Enright claimed that the building was on part of his property, and the two men began to argue. Buzzard fired several shots at Enright with his Winchester, then allies of both sides took defensive positions behind snowbanks and began shooting at one another.
Earp and his brother James stepped into the middle of the fray and helped peacefully resolve the dispute before anyone was seriously hurt.
Around April , Earp reportedly used his badge to join a band of claim jumpers in Embry Camp, later renamed Chewelah, Washington. About 10 years later, a reporter hunted up Buzzard after the Fitzimmons-Sharkey fight and extracted a story from him which accused Earp of being the brains behind lot-jumping and a real-estate fraud, further tarnishing his reputation.
The Coeur d'Alene mining venture died out by , so Earp and Josephine went to San Diego, California where the railroad was about to arrive and a real estate boom was underway.
They stayed for about four years, living most of the time in the Brooklyn Hotel. Each room was painted a different color, such as emerald green, summer yellow, or ruby red,  and each prostitute was required to dress in matching garments.
Earp had a long-standing interest in boxing and horse racing, and he refereed boxing matches in San Diego, Tijuana, and San Bernardino.
He won a race horse named Otto Rex in a card game and began investing in race horses,  and he also judged prize fights on both sides of the border;  he was one of the judges at the county fair horse races held in Escondido, California in The Earps moved back to San Francisco in  so that Josephine could be closer to her half-sister Henrietta's family, and Earp developed a reputation as a sportsman and a gambler.
He continued to race horses, but he could no longer afford to own them by , so he raced them on behalf of the owner of a horse stable in Santa Rosa which he managed.
Josephine wrote in her memoir that she and Earp were married in by the captain of multimillionaire Lucky Baldwin 's yacht off the California coast.
Raymond Nez wrote that his grandparents witnessed their marriage,  but no public record has been found for the marriage.
Earp's relationship with Josephine was tempestuous at times. She gambled to excess and he had adulterous affairs. In the s, Earp gave Josephine signed legal papers and filing fees to a claim for an oil lease in Kern County, California.
She gambled away the filing fees and lied to him about what happened to the lease, which later turned out to be valuable.
He distrusted her ability to manage her finances and made an arrangement with her sister Henrietta Lenhardt. He put oil leases in Henrietta's name with the agreement that the proceeds would benefit Josephine after his death.
In February , the oil well was completed and producing barrels a day, but Henrietta's three children refused to keep the agreement after their mother's death and kept the royalties to themselves.
Josephine later developed a reputation as a shrew who made life difficult for Earp. He was furious about her gambling habit, during which she lost considerable sums of money; each may have engaged in extramarital affairs.
Earp was a last-minute choice as referee for a boxing match on December 2, which the promoters billed as the heavyweight championship of the world, when Bob Fitzsimmons was set to fight Tom Sharkey at the Mechanics' Pavilion in San Francisco.
Earp had refereed 30 or so matches in earlier days, though not under the Marquess of Queensberry Rules but under the older and more liberal London Prize Ring Rules.
Fitzsimmons was favored to win, and the public and even civic officials placed bets on the outcome. Fitzsimmons dominated Sharkey throughout the fight, and he hit Sharkey with his famed "solar plexus punch" in the eighth round, an uppercut under the heart that could render a man temporarily helpless.
Then, at Fitzsimmons' next punch, Sharkey dropped, clutched his groin, and rolled on the canvas screaming foul. Earp awarded the fight to Sharkey, whom attendants carried out as "limp as a rag".
Fitzsimmons went to court to overturn Earp's decision,  and newspaper accounts and testimony over the next two weeks revealed a conspiracy among the boxing promoters to fix the fight's outcome.
Lewis, who accused the Earp brothers of being "stage robbers",  and Earp was parodied in editorial caricatures by newspapers across the country.
On December 17, Judge Sanderson finally ruled that prize fighting was illegal in San Francisco and the courts would not determine who the winner was.
Sharkey retained the purse, but the decision provided no vindication for Earp. The boxing match left a smear on his public character which followed him until he died and afterward.
Brookes Lee was accused of treating Sharkey to make it appear that he had been fouled by Fitzsimmons, and Lee admitted that it was true.
While in Yuma, Wyatt heard of the gold rush in the Alaska Yukon. Earp was reported to have secured the backing of a syndicate of sporting men to open a gambling house there.
Sadie got pregnant too, and she thought she could persuade Earp from heading to Alaska. He was in agreement, but Sadie, who was 37, miscarried soon after.
Wyatt and Josephine spent only a month in Dawson,. When they returned north, Wyatt was offered a job as the marshal in Wrangell, Alaska , but he served for only 10 days.
Sadie learned she was pregnant again, and they returned to San Francisco on October 11 aboard the steamship City of Seattle.
By the time they reached Rampart on the Yukon River, freeze-up had set in. In , they got as far as Rampart before the Yukon River froze in place for the winter.
Rampart was a friendly place, but far from the real action. They left with the spring thaw and headed for St.
Wyatt managed a small store during the spring of , selling beer and cigars for the Alaska Commercial Company. Michael as "chickenfeed" and persuaded him to relocate to Nome.
At the time of the Earps' arrival, Nome was two blocks wide and five miles long. The best accommodations Wyatt and Sadie could find was a wooden shack a few minutes from the main street, only slightly better than a tent.
The river was an open sewer. Typhoid , dysentery and pneumonia were common. Hoxie built the Dexter Saloon in Nome, the city's first two-story wooden building and its largest and most luxurious saloon.
The second floor had 12 "clubrooms" decorated with fine mirrors, thick carpets, draperies, and sideboards. It was used for a variety of purposes because it was so large: The Dexter drew anyone famous who visited Nome.
Wyatt rubbed elbows with future novelist Rex Beach, writer Jack London , playwright Wilson Mizner , and boxing promoter Tex Rickard ,  with whom Earp developed a long-lasting relationship.
Both the Dexter and the Northern Saloon competed for business with more than 60 other saloons in town serving an estimated 20, residents.
He was arrested twice in Nome for minor offenses, including being drunk and disorderly, although he was not tried.
Wyatt learned about his death soon after, and although some modern researchers believe he went to Arizona to avenge his brother's death, the distance and time required to make the trip made it unlikely, and no contemporary evidence has been found to support that theory.
The ship was infested with lice and was struck by a storm on the Bering Sea, making for a difficult trip. It took nine days to reach Seattle, Washington.
In , archivists at the Alaska State Library digitized a collection of documents relating to Earp's arrival and stay in Alaska. Earp arrived in Seattle with a plan to open a saloon and gambling room.
On November 25, , the Seattle Star described him as "a man of great reputation among the toughs and criminals, inasmuch as he formerly walked the streets of a rough frontier mining town with big pistols stuck in his belt, spurs on his boots, and a devil-may-care expression upon his official face".
The Seattle Daily Times was less full of praise, announcing in a very small article that he had a reputation in Arizona as a "bad man", which in that era was synonymous with "villain" and "desperado.
He faced considerable opposition to his plan from John Considine , who controlled all three gaming operations in town. Although gambling was illegal, Considine had worked out an agreement with Police Chief C.
Earp partnered with an established local gambler named Thomas Urguhart, and they opened the Union Club saloon and gambling operation in Seattle's Pioneer Square.
The Seattle Star noted two weeks later that Earp's saloon was earning a large following. Considine unsuccessfully tried to intimidate Earp, but his saloon continued to prosper.
After the city failed to act, on March 23, , the Washington state attorney general filed charges against several gamblers, including Earp and his partner.
The club's furnishings were confiscated and burned. Newspapers in Seattle and San Francisco falsely reported on Wyatt's wealth which prompted a stampede to Nome to seek similar riches.
Nome was advertised as an "exotic summer destination" and four ships a day left Seattle with passengers infected with "gold fever.
Within weeks Nome grew to a city of over 20, inhabitants. In , the major business there "was not mining, but gambling and saloon trade.
There were saloons and gambling houses, with an occasional restaurant. Prize fighting became the sport of choice and Wyatt's income soared with side bets.
He often refereed bouts himself at The Dexter. Sadie got pregnant again, and she and Wyatt decided to leave Alaska.
They sold their interest in the Dexter to their partner, Charlie Hoxie. Sadie miscarried and lost the baby. Three months later, in February , they arrived in Tonopah, Nevada , known as the "Queen of the Silver Camps", where silver and gold had been discovered in and a boom was under way.
After Tonopah's gold strike waned, they moved in to Goldfield, Nevada , where his brother Virgil and his wife were living. He hired Wyatt as a pit boss.
In , he discovered several deposits of gold and copper near the Sonoran Desert town of Vidal, California , on the Colorado River and filed more than mining claims  near the Whipple Mountains.
This led to Wyatt's final armed confrontation. Lewis to head up a posse to protect surveyors of the American Trona Company who were attempting to wrest control of mining claims for vast deposits of potash on the edge of Searles Lake held in receivership by the foreclosed California Trona Company.
Wyatt and the group he guarded were regarded as claim jumpers and were confronted by armed representatives of the other company. King wrote, "it was the nerviest thing he had ever seen".
With guns pulled, Wyatt came out of his tent with a Winchester rifle , firing a round at the feet of Federal Receiver Stafford W. Earp's actions did not resolve the dispute, which eventually escalated into the "Potash Wars" of the Mojave Desert.
Peterson, a realty broker, in a fake faro game. The Earps bought a small cottage in Vidal, the only home they ever owned.
Beginning in and until Wyatt's health began to fail in , Wyatt and Sadie Earp summered in Los Angeles and spent the rest of the year in the desert working their claims.
In about , Charles Welsh, a retired railroad engineer and friend that Earp had known since Dodge City, frequently invited the Earps to visit his family in San Bernardino.
When the Welsh family moved to Los Angeles, the Earps accepted an invitation to stay with them for a while in their top-floor apartment until the Earps found a place to rent.
She and her sister Alma were concerned about the care Sadie gave Wyatt. Though he was at times very ill, she still did not cook for him.
Spolidora, her sisters, and her mother brought in meals. While living in Los Angeles, Earp became an unpaid film consultant for several silent cowboy movies.
In his autobiography, Dwan recalled, "As was the custom in those days, he [Earp] was invited to join the party and mingle with our background action.
Earp became friends with William Hart and later Tom Mix , the two most famous movie cowboys of their era. Hart was a stickler for realism in his depictions of Western life, and may have relied on Earp for advice.
Earp later frequently visited the sets of movie director John Ford , whose movies starred Harry Carey. In , Earp went with his friend Jack London, whom he knew from Nome, to visit the set of former cowboy, sailor, and movie actor-turned-film director Raoul Walsh , who was shooting at the studio of Mutual Film conglomerate in Edendale, California.
During the meal, the highest paid entertainer in the world, Charlie Chaplin , dropped by to greet Wyatt Earp.
Chaplin was impressed by both men, but particularly the former Tombstone marshal. In the early s, Earp was given the honorary title of deputy sheriff in San Bernardino County, California.
Earp tried to persuade his good friend, well-known cowboy movie star William S. Hart, to help set the record straight about his life and get a movie made.
In , Earp began to collaborate on a biography with his friend and former mining engineer John Flood to get his story told in a way that he approved.
The two men sat together every Sunday in the kitchen of Earp's modest, rented bungalow. While Wyatt sipped a drink and smoked a cigar, they tried to tell Earp's story, but Josephine was always present.
It needs to be clean. She thought Earp needed to be shown as a hero, and the manuscript includes a chapter titled "Conflagration" in which Earp saves two women, one a cripple, from a Tombstone fire.
Flood's writing was "stilted, corny, and one-dimensional", and the manuscript, completed some time in early , never found a publisher.
She wrote, "Now one forgets what it's all about in the clutter of unimportant details that impedes its pace, and the pompous manner of its telling. Spolidora as a teenager had visited the Earps many times near her family home in Needles, California , and she sometimes went to San Diego with them.
Josephine "would always interfere whenever Wyatt would talk with Stuart Lake. She wanted him to look like a church-going saint and blow things up.
Wyatt didn't want that at all! Hart tried to help. Wyatt Earp was the last surviving Earp brother and the last surviving participant of the gunfight at the O.
Corral when he died at home in the Earps' small rented bungalow at W 17th Street,  in Los Angeles, of chronic cystitis on January 13, , at the age of Wyatt was survived by Josephine and sister Adelia Earp Edwards.
He had no children. Josephine was apparently too grief-stricken to assist. The funeral was held at the Congregational Church on Wilshire Boulevard.
Hart good friend and Western actor and silent film star ;  and Tom Mix friend and Western film star. When Josephine did not attend Wyatt's funeral, Grace Spolidora was furious.
She wasn't that upset. I don't think she was that devastated when he died. Josephine, who was Jewish,  had Earp's body cremated and secretly buried his remains in the Marcus family plot at the Hills of Eternity Memorial Park, a Jewish cemetery in Colma, California.
When she died in , her body was buried alongside his ashes. She had purchased a small white marble headstone which was stolen shortly after her death in It was discovered in a backyard in Fresno, California.
A second stone of flat granite was also stolen. It was located for sale in a flea market. Cemetery officials re-set the stone flush in concrete, but it was stolen again.
Actor Kevin Costner , who played Earp in the movie Wyatt Earp offered to buy a new, larger stone, but the Marcus family thought his offer was self-serving and declined.
Descendants of Josie's half-sister Rebecca allowed a Southern California group in to erect the stone currently in place. The earlier stone is on display in the Colma Historical museum.
In , the Tombstone Restoration Commission looked for Wyatt's ashes with the intention of having them re-located to Tombstone. They contacted family members seeking permission and the location of his ashes, but no one could tell them where they were buried, not even his closest living relative, George Earp.
Arthur King, a deputy to Earp from to , finally revealed that Josephine had buried Wyatt's ashes in Colma, California, and the Tombstone Commission cancelled its plans to relocate them.
Two years before his death, Earp defended his decisions before the gunfight at the O. Corral and his actions afterward in an interview with Stuart Lake, author of the largely fictionalized biography Wyatt Earp: For my handling of the situation at Tombstone, I have no regrets.
Were it to be done over again, I would do exactly as I did at that time. If the outlaws and their friends and allies imagined that they could intimidate or exterminate the Earps by a process of murder, and then hide behind alibis and the technicalities of the law, they simply missed their guess.
I want to call your particular attention again to one fact, which writers of Tombstone incidents and history apparently have overlooked: Tall like his brothers, Wyatt Earp was 6 feet 1.
He is dignified, self-contained, game and fearless, and no man commands greater respect At about the same time, The Mirror , a newspaper in Monroe, Iowa, printed a wire story originating in Denver.
The anonymous reporter described Wyatt in detail:. Wyatt Earp, a man whose trigger finger had considerable to do in making the border history of the West, was in Denver for several days last week.
He is tall and athletic. His eyes are blue and fringed with light lashes and set beneath blonde eyebrows. His hair, which was once as yellow as gold, is beginning to be stranded with white.
A heavy, tawny mustache shades his firm mouth and sweeps below his strong, square chin. With a Derby hat and a pair of tan shoes, he was a figure to catch a lady's eye In , writer Adela Rogers St.
Johns met the elderly Earp for the first time. He was straight as a pine tree, tall and magnificently built.
I knew he was nearly 80, but in spite of his snow white hair and mustache, he did not seem or look old. His greetings were warm and friendly.
I stood in awe. Somehow, like a mountain, or desert, he reduced you to size. Among his peers near his death, Wyatt was respected.
He was game to the last ditch and apparently afraid of nothing. The cowmen all respected him and seemed to recognize his superiority and authority at such times as he had to use it.
When citizens of Dodge City learned the Earps had been charged with murder after the gunfight, they sent letters endorsing and supporting the Earps to Judge Wells Spicer.
Wyatt's manner, though friendly, suggested a quiet reserve Frequently it has happened that men who have served as peace officers on the frontier have craved notoriety in connection with their dealings with the outlaw element of their time.
Wyatt Earp deprecated such notoriety, and during his last illness he told me that for many years he had hoped the public would weary of the narratives—distorted with fantastic and fictitious embellishments—that were published from time to time concerning him, and that his last years might be passed in undisturbed obscurity.
Bill Dixon knew Wyatt early in his adult life. Wyatt was a shy young man with few intimates. With casual acquaintances he seldom spoke unless spoken to.
When he did say anything it was to the point, without fear or favor, which wasn't relished by some; but that never bothered Wyatt.
To those who knew him well he was a genial companion. He had the most even disposition I ever saw; I never knew him to lose his temper.
He was more intelligent, better educated, and far better mannered than the majority of his associates, which probably did not help them to understand him.
His reserve limited his friendships, but more than one stranger, down on his luck, has had firsthand evidence of Wyatt's generosity.
I think his outstanding quality was the nicety with which he gauged the time and effort for every move.
That, plus his absolute confidence in himself, gave him the edge over the run of men. Public perception of his life has varied over the years as media accounts of his life have changed.
The story of the Earps' actions in Tombstone were published at the time by newspapers nationwide. Corral gunfight, that the Cowboys had been ordered to put their hands up and after they complied, were shot by the Earps, stating, "The whole series of killings cannot be classed other than cold blooded murder.
Famous lawman Bat Masterson described Wyatt in Wyatt Earp was one of the few men I personally knew in the West in the early days whom I regarded as absolutely destitute of physical fear.
Wyatt Earp's daring and apparent recklessness in time of danger is wholly characteristic; personal fear doesn't enter into the equation, and when everything is said and done, I believe he values his own opinion of himself more than that of others, and it is his own good report he seeks to preserve He never at any time in his career resorted to the pistol excepting cases where such a course was absolutely necessary.
Wyatt could scrap with his fists, and had often taken all the fight out of bad men, as they were called, with no other weapons than those provided by nature.
Wyatt was reputed to be an expert with a revolver. He showed no fear of any man. Wyatt was lucky during the few gun fights he took part in from his earliest job as an assistant police officer in Wichita to Tombstone, where he was briefly deputy U.
Unlike his lawmen brothers Virgil and James, Wyatt was never wounded, although once his clothing and his saddle were shot through with bullet holes.
Flood's biography as dictated to him by Wyatt Earp , Wyatt vividly recalled a presence that in several instances warned him away or urged him to take action.
This happened when he was on the street, alone in his room at the Cosmopolitan Hotel, at Bob Hatch's Pool Hall, where he went moments before Morgan was assassinated, and again when he approached Iron Springs and surprised Curly Bill Brocius, killing him.
After the shootout in Tombstone, his pursuit and murder of those who attacked his brothers, and after leaving Arizona, Wyatt was often the target of negative newspaper stories that disparaged his and his brothers' reputation.
His role in history has stimulated considerable ongoing scholarly and editorial debate. A large body of literature has been written about Wyatt Earp and his legacy, some of it highly fictionalized.
Considerable portions of it are either full of admiration and flattery or hostile debunking. Wyatt was repeatedly criticized in the media over the remainder of his life.
His wife Josephine wrote, "The falsehoods that were printed in some of the newspapers about him and the unjust accusations against him hurt Wyatt more deeply than anything that ever happened to him during my life with him, with the exception of his mother's death and that of his father and brother, Warren.
It described Behan as "an honest man, a good official, and possessed many of the attributes of a gentleman". Earp, on the other hand, "was head of band of desperadoes, a partner in stage robbers, and a friend of gamblers and professional killers Wyatt was the boss killer of the region.
Former nemesis Johnny Behan continued to spread rumors about the Earps for the next 20 years. On December 7, , he was quoted in a story in the Washington Post , reprinted by the San Francisco Call , describing the Earp's lawbreaking behavior in Tombstone.
After referring to the Fitzimmons-Sharkey fight, the article quoted Behan. Between them and Earps rose a bitter feud over the division of the proceeds of the looting.
The Earp boys believed they had failed to get a fair divide of the booty and swore vengeance. They caught their former allies in Tombstone unarmed and shot three of them dead while their hands were uplifted.
Warrants were issued for their arrest, and, summoning a posse, I went out to bring the Earps in. They were chased entirely out of the country and Tombstone knew them no more.
After Earp left Alaska in , the New York Sun printed a story in that described a confrontation Earp had reportedly had with a short 5 feet 1.
The story was reprinted as far away as New Zealand by the Otago Witness. Raines described the gunfight as an ambush.
He said that he remembered the Earps shot the Cowboys and killed Ike Clanton when they actually killed his brother Billy before the Cowboys had a chance to surrender.
He recalled that the Cowboys "were leading their horses out of the gate when they were confronted, almost from ambush, by four of the Earps, Virgil.
Wyatt, Morgan and Jim and by Doc Holliday. Virgil Earp, armed with a sawed off express shotgun, and accompanying his demand with profanity, yelled "Hands up!
Tom McLowery [ sic ] showed his empty bands, and cried. Ike Clanton fell at the first fire, mortally wounded, but he rolled over and fired two shots from his pistol between his bent knees.
During , Frederick R. Bechdolt published the book When the West Was Young ,  which included a story about Wyatt's time in Tombstone, but he mangled many basic facts.
He described the Earp-Clanton differences as the falling-out of partners in crime. It said that the Earps were allies of Frank Stilwell, who had informed on them, so they killed him,  and that Earp had died in Colton, California.
The author concocted a fictional description of the Earp's relationship with Sheriff Behan and the Cowboys:. Trouble arose between them and Sheriff John Behan, who tried to 'clean up' the town.
Trouble began when four cowboys refused to recognize the right of the Earp gang to rule the town. The Earps ordered the cowboys out of town and they were preparing to leave when they were waylaid and a gun battle followed during which Virgil Earp was shot in the leg, Morgan Earp in the shoulder and Ike Clanton was killed.
The town was aroused and Frank Stilwell, who led the stage robberies, brought the trouble to a climax when he informed against his partners, because the Earps would not divide fairly.
In a gun battle that followed, Stilwell killed Morgan Earp. A few months later another stage was robbed, and the driver, 'Bud' Philpot, was killed.
Josephine and Earps' friend and actor William Hart both wrote letters to the publisher. Josephine demanded that the error "must be corrected and printed in the same sensational manner" given to the correction as to the original article, which the paper published.
At the time of his death, Earp may have been more well known for the controversy that engulfed him after the Fitzsimmons vs. Sharkey match in San Francisco than for the gunfight in Tombstone.
As Deputy United States Marshal, Earp had been sent from town to town to quell disturbances and establish peace. His only recorded visit to California in those days was his memorable trip to Colton, then known as the "toughest town untamed.
Earp's modern-day reputation is that of the Old West's "toughest and deadliest gunman of his day". Author Walter Noble Burns visited Earp in September and asked him questions with the intent to write a book about Earp.
Earp declined because he was already collaborating with John Flood. Burns visited Tombstone and based on what he learned decided instead to focus his book on Doc Holliday.
He pestered Earp for facts, and on March 27 the next year, Earp finally responded to Burns' repeated requests in an page letter outlining the basic facts from Earp's point of view.
When their efforts to get the Flood manuscript published failed, the Earps decided to appeal to Burns, whose own book was near publication.
But he was not interested. His book was about to be published, free of the constraints imposed by a collaboration with Earp.
I should have been delighted six months ago to accept your offer but it is too late now. My book has championed Mr.
Earp's cause throughout and I believe will vindicate his reputation in Tombstone in a way that he will like. In late , Burns published Tombstone, An Iliad of the Southwest, a mesmerizing tale "of blood and thunder," that christened Earp as the "Lion of Tombstone".
Something epic in him, fashioned in Homeric mold. In his way, a hero. Readers and reviewers found they had a difficult time discerning between "fact and fiction.
Burns treated Earp as a mythical figure, a "larger-than-life hero whose many portrayals in film, television, and books often render fidelity to truth the first casualty.
He pressed Wyatt for details about his time in Tombstone to add to his book Helldorado: Bringing Law to the Mesquite. Breakenridge was assisted by Western novelist William MacLeod Raine , who since had published more than 25 novels about Western history.
The book was published in before Wyatt died. Corral gun fight stated that the Clanton and McLaury brothers were merely cowboys who had been unarmed and surrendered but the Earp brothers had shot them in cold blood.
Earp complained about the book until his death in , and his wife continued in the same vein afterward.
Burkholder, who specialized in stories about the Old West, published an article about Wyatt in in Argosy Magazine. He called Wyatt Earp a coward and murderer, and manufactured evidence to support his allegations.
Qualey", for the Western magazine Real West. His stores were filled with sensational claims about Wyatt Earp's villainy, and he made up fake letters to the editor from supposed "old-timers" to corroborate this story.
Allie Earp was so upset by the way Waters distorted and manipulated her words that she threatened to shoot him. In it, Waters vociferously berated Wyatt:.
Wyatt was an itinerant saloonkeeper, cardsharp, gunman, bigamist, church deacon, policeman, bunco artist, and a supreme confidence man. A lifelong exhibitionist ridiculed alike by members of his own family, neighbors, contemporaries, and the public press, he lived his last years in poverty, still vainly trying to find someone to publicize his life, and died two years before his fictitious biography recast him in the role of America's most famous frontier marshal.
Purportedly quoting Allie, he invented bitter public fights between Mattie and Wyatt, and told how Wyatt's affair with Sadie Marcus, "the slut of Tombstone," had humiliated Mattie.
He condemned the Earp brothers' character and called them names. Waters used Allie Earp's anecdotes as a frame for adding a narrative and "building a case, essentially piling quote upon quote to prove that Wyatt Earp was a con man, thief, robber, and eventually murderer".
Reidhead, author of Travesty: Frank Waters Earp Agenda Exposed , spent nearly a decade searching for Water's original manuscript, researching him, his background, and his bias against the Earps.
In doing so, the author discovered that the story Waters presented against the Earps was primarily fictitious. Because of his later reputation, few writers, even today, dare question Waters' motives.
They also do not bother fact checking the Earp Brothers of Tombstone , which is so inaccurate it should be considered fiction, rather than fact.
Anti-Earp writers and researchers use Frank Waters' Earp Brothers of Tombstone , as their primary source for material that presents Wyatt Earp as something of a villainous monster, aided and abetted by his brothers who were almost brutes.
Waters detested the Earps so badly that he presented a book that was terribly flawed, poorly edited, and brimming with prevarications. In his other work, Waters is poetic.
In the Earp Brothers of Tombstone , he is little more than a tabloid hack, trying to slander someone he dislikes.
Man and Myth in His books were strongly anti-Earp and attacked Wyatt Earp's image as a hero. Bartholomew went about this by reciting snippets of accumulated anti-Earp facts, rumors, gossip, and innuendo.
Bartholomew's books started a trend of debunking Earp, and the academic community followed his lead, pursuing the image of Earp as a "fighting pimp".
One inconsistency by Barra, pointed out by another reviewer, includes a description of the poker game the night before the shootout.
He wrote a letter to John Hays Hammond on May 21, , telling him "notoriety had been the bane of my life. I detest it, and I never have put forth any effort to check the tales that have been published in which my brothers and I are supposed to have been the principal participants.
Not one of them is correct. He was tired of all the lies perpetuated about him and became determined to get his story accurately told.
Earp did not trust the press and preferred to keep his mouth shut. The many negative, untruthful stories bothered Earp a great deal, and he finally decided to tell his own story.
Scanland, the author of the LA Times article, and extract a written retraction from him, which he finally did in In , Earp began to collaborate on a biography with his friend and former mining engineer with John Flood to get his story told in a way that he approved.
Lake published the first biography of Wyatt Earp, : Frontier Marshal in ,  two years after Earp died. Lake wrote the book with Earp's input,  but was only able to interview him eight times before Earp died,  during which Earp sketched out the "barest facts" of his life.
Lake initially sought Earp out hoping to write a magazine article about him. Earp was also seeking a biographer at about the same time.
Earp, who was 80, was concerned that his vantage point on the Tombstone story may be lost, and may have been financially motivated, as he had little income in his last years of life.
During the interviews and in later correspondence, Josephine and Wyatt went to great lengths to keep her name out of Lake's book. Frontier Marshal in , two years after Earp's death.
Lake's creative biography portrays Earp as a "Western superhero",  "gallant white knight"  and entirely avoided mentioning Josephine Earp or Blaylock.
A number of Hollywood movies have been directly and indirectly influenced by Lake's book and its depiction of Earp's role as a western lawman.
Corral in the public consciousness and Earp as a fearless lawman in the American Old West. The book "is now regarded more as fiction than fact",  "an imaginative hoax, a fabrication mixed with just enough fact to give it credibility".
Josephine Earp worked hard to create an image of Wyatt as a teetotaler ,  but as a saloon owner and gambler, he drank occasionally as well.
When Flood and Lake wrote their biographies, Prohibition was in force. Among the other facts Josephine wanted scrubbed from Earp's history, was that he liked a drink.
She persuaded biographers Flood, Lake and Burns to write that Earp was a non-drinker. A good friend of Earp's, Charlie Welsh, was known to disappear for days at a time "to see property", the family euphemism for a drinking binge, and Earp was his regular partner.
Buntline was supposed to have presented them to lawmen in thanks for their help with contributing "local color" to his western yarns. According to Lake, the revolver was equipped with a detachable metal shoulder stock.
However, neither Tilghman nor Brown were lawmen then. Researchers have never found any record of an order received by the Colt company, and Ned Buntline's alleged connections to Earp's have been largely discredited.
After the publication of Lake's book, various Colt revolvers with long 10" or 16" barrels were referred to as "Colt Buntlines". Colt re-introduced the revolvers in its second generation revolvers produced after Earp's reputation has been confused by inaccurate, conflicting, and false stories told about him by others, and by his own claims that cannot be corroborated.
For example, in an interview with a reporter in Denver in , he denied that he had killed Johnny Ringo. In , he was interviewed by an agent of California historian Hubert H.
Bancroft , and Earp claimed that he had killed "over a dozen stage robbers, murderers, and cattle thieves".
However, Earp included details that do not match what is known about Ringo's death. Earp repeated that claim to at least three other people. At the hearing following the Tombstone shootout, Earp said he had been marshal in Dodge City, a claim he repeated in an August 16, , interview that appeared in The San Francisco Examiner.
But Earp had only been an assistant city marshal there. During an interview with his future biographer Stuart Lake during the late s, Earp said that he arrested notorious gunslinger Ben Thompson in Ellsworth , Kansas , on August 15, , when news accounts and Thompson's own contemporary account about the episode do not mention his presence.
However he was not convicted of the last charge and was released. In the same interview, Earp claimed that George Hoyt had intended to kill him, although newspaper accounts from that time report differently.
Cowboy Charlie Siringo witnessed the incident and left a written account. Wyatt outlived his brothers, and due to the fame Wyatt gained from Lake's biography and later adaptations of it, he is often mistakenly viewed as the central character and hero of the gunfight at the O.
Marshal and Tombstone City Marshal, actually held the legal authority in Tombstone the day of the shootout. Wyatt was only a temporary assistant marshal to his brother.
Western historian and author John Boessenecker describes Earp as an "enigmatic figure He always lived on the outer fringe of respectable society, and his closest companions were gamblers and sporting men Wyatt never set down roots in any one place; when the money stopped coming in or his problems became too great, he would pull up stakes and move on to the next boomtown For his entire life was a gamble, an effort to make money without working hard for it, to succeed quickly without ever settling in for the long haul.
One of the most well known and for many years respected books about Wyatt Earp was the book I Married Wyatt Earp , originally credited as a factual memoir by Josephine Marcus Earp.
Published in , it was edited by amateur historian Glenn Boyer , : It was immensely popular for many years, capturing the imagination of people with an interest in western history, studied in classrooms, cited by scholars, : In , writer Tony Ortega wrote a lengthy investigative article for the Phoenix New Times for which he interviewed Boyer.
Boyer said that he was uninterested in what others thought of the accuracy of what he had written. I don't have to adhere to the kind of jacket that these people are putting on me.
I am not a historian. Boyer and the University Press' credibility was severely damaged. In the university referred all questions to university lawyers who investigated some of the allegations about Boyer's work.
As a result, other works by Boyer were subsequently questioned. His book, Wyatt Earp's Tombstone Vendetta , published in , was according to Boyer based on an account written by a previously unknown Tombstone journalist that he named "Theodore Ten Eyck", but whose identity could not be independently verified.
Boyer claimed that the manuscript was "clearly authentic" and that it contained "fascinating revelations if they are true and would make an ace movie".
History professor William Urban also described "the questionable scholarship of Glenn Boyer, the dominant figure in Earpiana for the past several decades, who has apparently invented a manuscript and then cited it as a major source in his publications.
This does not surprise this reviewer, who has personal experience with Boyer's pretentious exaggeration of his acquaintance with Warren County records.
When a post office was established in in the unincorporated settlement of Drennan, near the site of some of his mining claims, it was renamed Earp, California in his honor.
Arctic explorer Lincoln Ellsworth became fascinated with the Earp legend. Ellsworth completed four expeditions to Antarctica between and , using a former Norwegian herring boat as his aircraft transporter and base that he named Wyatt Earp after his hero.
Ellsworth befriended Earp's widow, Josephine Earp. After Wyatt's death, she wrote him that she was sending him Wyatt's handgun, a shotgun, pipe, and wedding ring.
She said she was sending him a. Its serial number indicates it was originally shipped from the Colt factory on January 30, John Gilchriese, an amateur historian and long-time collector of Earp memorabilia, interviewed John H.
His collection included Earp's original diagrams of the gunfights in Tombstone and Iron Springs, along with photos, original letters, invoices, checks, and hundreds of related items.
In , when his health deteriorated, he sold his collection at auction. The drawings of the OK Corral shoot out were later resold. On April 17, , the family of deceased Earp amateur historian Glenn Boyer put much of his Earp collection and many artifacts up for auction.
Among the 32 boxes of documentation, files, pictures and memorabilia for sale was a Colt. Also included in the auction was a Winchester lever-action shotgun belonging to Wyatt Earp.
Earp was known to carry a. Descendants of Wyatt Earp's cousins assert that Earp carried the revolver featured in the auction and while in Tombstone, although the grips, barrel, and cylinder have been replaced.
Only the frame is original, and its serial number has been filed off. The history of the items is controversial, because they belonged to Boyer.
John Boessenecker, a respected author of numerous articles on the American Old West and a collector of American Old West guns and memorabilia, said that it would be "impossible to separate the authenticity of the auction items from Boyer's own troubled history.
The affidavit is included with the revolver, along with other expert findings. Despite Boyer's affidavit, he said the missing serial number is a "kiss of death.
Corral in under Wyatt's supervision. The drawing placed participants and selected witnesses on Fremont Street in Tombstone, and Earp annotated it with lines indicating how the participants moved during the second shootout.
Earp was depicted in only one movie while he was alive. He later became the prototypical model for a western lawman.
His character has been portrayed directly and indirectly in dozens of movies and television shows. Earp's good friend William Hart produced and wrote the seven-reel epic Wild Bill Hickok released by Paramount in It was the first movie to depict Wyatt Earp and the only movie that included his character before he died in He appears at the back of a crowd scene when Hickok meets some gentlemen on the city street.
Bert Lindley is not listed on some descriptions of the movie and this portrayal of Earp is often overlooked, as in the biography Inventing Wyatt Earp: Promotional copy for the film prominently mentioned Earp: After his death in , Earp's character did not appear in a movie until the famous gunfight was depicted for the first time in the film Law and Order , although the Wyatt Earp character is named Frame 'Saint' Johnson Walter Huston.
With the emergence of television in the s, producers spun out a large number of Western-oriented shows. At the height of their popularity in , there were more than two dozen "cowboy" programs on each week.
At least six of them were connected in some extent to Wyatt Earp: Wyatt Earp both directly and indirectly influenced the way movies depict lawmen in the American Old West.
While living in Los Angeles, Earp met several well-known and soon-to-be famous actors on the sets of various movies.
He became good friends with Western actors William S. Hart ,  and Tom Mix. Frontier Marshal was the basis for how Earp has been depicted as a fearless Western hero in a large number of films and books.
Josephine Earp successfully pressured the producers to remove Wyatt's name from the film, and the protagonist was renamed "Michael Wyatt".
The film was made again in Wurtzel produced both films. Lake wrote another book about Wyatt Earp titled My Darling Clementine in that director John Ford developed into the movie of the same name,  which further boosted Wyatt's reputation.
The book later inspired a number of stories, movies and television programs about outlaws and lawmen in Dodge City and Tombstone. Lake wrote a number of screenplays for these movies and twelve scripts for the —61 television series The Life and Legend of Wyatt Earp starring Hugh O'Brian as Earp.
The popular movie Gunfight at the O. Corral , released in , starring Burt Lancaster as Earp, cemented his place in Western history as a hero lawman.
The movie also altered the public's perception of cowboys, who in Earp's time and locale were outlaws, but in the movies were reinvented as good guys, assisting the lawmen in their fight against the outlaws.
Director John Ford said that when he was a prop boy in the early days of silent pictures , Earp would visit pals on the sets he knew from his Tombstone days.
So in My Darling Clementine , we did it exactly the way it had been. John Wayne later told Hugh O'Brian that he based his Western lawman  walk, talk and persona to his acquaintance with Wyatt Earp, who was good friends with Mix.
I often thought of Wyatt Earp when I played a film character. There's a guy that actually did what I'm trying to do. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Wyatt Earp disambiguation. Earp at about age 39 : Celia Ann "Mattie" Blaylock m. Josephine Sarah Marcus m.
Further information on political issues and election fraud: Cochise County in the Old West. Further information on Cowboys and lawmen in Cochise County: Gunfight at the O.
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